January 3, 2002

2001 Will Be A Year To Remember Thanks To September 11th (Year in Review Part 2)

August 2, 2001

Representatives of Missouri's rural hospitals traveled to Washington, D.C. in July to urge Congress to support legislation that would help these facilities respond to a growing shortage of nurses and other health practitioners. Scotland County Memorial Hospital administrator Marcia Dial and administrative assistant Brenda Prather were among the local health care officials to make the trip.

August 9, 2001

A lot of people walk around the Scotland County square every day of the week, but it took a special group of volunteers to join together August 3-4 to circle the square more than 5,700 times during the American Cancer Society's Relay for Life. The walkers raised more than $14,000 for the charity in the process.

August 16, 2001

After several months in the planning and production stage, www.memphisdemocrat.com has finally gone online effective August 13. The Internet newspaper is being made available through a joint effort of the newspaper staff and the folks at Skyhouse Consulting, an Internet-based web site designer located in the Dancing Rabbit community near Rutledge.

August 23, 2001

Scotland County was among three northeast Missouri counties to receive funding for bridge repair through the Community Development Block Grant program. The awards were announced August 17 by Governor Bob Holden as part of a $2.5 million CDBG package for rural communities. Scotland County will receive $273,800 to pay for the replacement of 10 bridges in the county.

August 30, 2001

It took just over three months, but a pair of college students made it on foot from Point Reyes California near San Francisco to Memphis. However the long trek is only half complete as the duo, part of a four-man team plans to complete a walk across America. Joe McCarty and Michael Charbonneau stopped in Memphis for a day and a half to "refuel their batteries" before pressing on with the trip. The group is making the walk as an effort to raise awareness for the issue of sexual abuse.

September 6, 2001

Not only does the Scotland County R-I School District have the fourth lowest tax levy among the 66-similar sized districts in the state, but now the district has an even lower levy rate following the August 31 SCR-I School Board meeting. Following the annual tax levy rate hearing prior to the board of education meeting, the board voted 6-0 to set the 2001-2002 levy rate at $3.0083 per $100 of assessed valuation. That is a reduction of more than five cents from the last year's rate of $3.06.

September 13, 2001

Mounting an audacious attack against the United States, terrorists crashed two hijacked airliners into the World Trade Center and brought down the twin 110-story towers Tuesday morning, September 11. A jetliner also slammed into the Pentagon as the seat of government itself came under attack. Hundreds were apparently killed aboard the jets, and untold numbers were feared dead in the rubble. Thousands were injured in New York alone. A fourth jetliner, also apparently hijacked, crashed in Pennsylvania.

September 20, 2001

The political subdivisions of Scotland County are getting a facelift. Following the 2000 Census results which revealed a large disparity in population numbers between the existing east and west districts, the county is considering replacing the old system with a more geographical distribution that would also create a more balanced population base for both regions.

September 27, 2001

The newest and largest health clinic in the United States Army will bear the name of a former Memphis resident who died in the line of duty during the Vietnam War in 1970. The Charles Thomas Moore Health Clinic is tentatively scheduled for dedication February 14, 2002 in Fort Hood, TX. Moore served as a medic in the 1st Cavalry Division of the United States Army. He was killed in the line of duty on January 5, 1970 near Tay Ninh, South Vietnam at the age of 21.

The outpouring of support from the Scotland County community continued last week for the survivors and the victims of the terrorist attacks on the East Coast September 11. Students at the Scotland County R-I School District combined to raise more than $1,100 for the American Red Cross. The Scotland County Fire Department raised more than $6,600 in donations at a soup dinner fundraiser for the New York City firemen and their families on September 22.

October 4, 2001

The fears of school violence and the concerns generated by the recent national tragedies boiled over at the Scotland County R-I School system October 2 when a bomb threat was received at the school. A handwritten note addressed to the school administration threatening that bombs had been placed in both school buildings was located in a high school classroom by a teacher. A 15-year old suspect was taken into custody at the scene. An extensive search of both buildings found no bombs.

October 11, 2001

After preliminary reports calling for price increases of as much as 32-percent, the Memphis City Council voted 4-0 during the October 4 meeting to approve ordinance 9-01 that will raise electric rates by just eight percent.

October 18, 2001

Several area witnesses painted a problematic picture regarding the future of the nursing home industry for members of the House Select Committee on Nursing Home Care, which met at the Memphis Theatre October 15. Representatives from several local care centers spoke to the 10-panel committee chaired by First District State Representative Sam Berkowitz. They discussed several troubling issues including declining revenue, deficit Medicaid reimbursement, shrink-ing labor force and growing governmental regulations.

October 25, 2001

His legacy lives on. For the people that knew the late First District State Representative Jim Sears, there could be no better way to honor the former teacher than by naming his educational dream in his memory. The Jim Sears Northeast Technical Center was officially dedicated October 20 in a special celebration that drew a large crowd to the technical school campus in Edina.

The community was dealt a difficult blow October 21, when 18-year-old Jason Rockhold of Arbela was killed in a one-vehicle accident on Highway 136.

November 1, 2001

The Memphis Police Department investigated an early morning break in at the Raytec manufacturing plant on Highway 136 in Memphis that occurred October 15. The robber(s) cut phone lines to the building as well as other power lines inside the warehouse and on the plant's forklift before loading 10 12' by 16' aluminum rolls and removing them from the site. An estimated $10,000 value was placed on the stolen property. A similar burglary occurred at the plant in 1997.

November 8, 2001

Nearly 100 area emergency service personnel spent more than 10 hours Saturday, November 3 searching northern Scotland County for a possible injured hunter. At 10:30 a.m. a group of hunters contacted the Scotland County Sheriff's Department and reported that they had overheard radio traffic on a family service radio from a hunter that stated he had fallen and was injured. The search was called off at 9:30 p.m. No hunter was located in the 11-hour search.

November 15, 2001

More than eight hours of contract discussions evaporated in a split second as former track promoter Ron Anderson walked away from the negotiation table at the November 12 meeting of the Scotland County Fair Board. The move left the fair board scrambling in an effort to secure the services of a track promoter for next season.

November 22, 2001

The Scotland County Fire Department responded to a pair of calls over the November 17th weekend. A combine fire was reported on property owned by Speers Farms located northwest of Memphis at approximately 12:10 p.m. November 17. The second fire call came in at 10:30 p.m. November 17. The department responded to a brush fire at the Richard L. Briggs residence southwest of Memphis.

November 29, 2001

A Memphis man escaped serious injury after the tractor-trailer he was driving went off a bridge in a three-vehicle accident that occurred at approximately 4:00 p.m. November 23 in Scotland County. Ken Hull, 30, suffered moderate injuries when the 1995 GMC semi tractor trailer he was driving southbound on Highway 15 smashed through the barrier on the northbound traffic lane of the bridge over the South Wyaconda and plunged downward approximately 30 feet before smashing into the south creek bank.

December 6, 2001

Local farmers may have felt they had a strong voice in state agriculture legislation with the late Rep. Gary Wiggins heading the House Ag Committee, but now they have a direct link to farm policy. Speaker of the House Jim Kreider, D-Nixa, named veteran lawmaker Sam Berkowitz, D-Memphis, as the next head of the prominent House Agriculture Committee.

December 13, 2001

Betty L. Harris, 80, of Kahoka was killed in a head-on collision with a semi tractor trailer on Highway 136 seven miles east of Memphis at the section of the road often referred to as "Blind Man's Corner" at 10:40 a.m. December 11.

December 20, 2001

The 2001 Memphis Community Choir performed in front of a packed house at the United Methodist Church December 16 with the presentation of "Come to the Manger", the group's annual Christmas program.

December 27, 2001

The Scotland County Fair Board insured races at the Scotland County Speedway for another year by signing a one-year lease agreement with Lee County Speedway Promoter Terry Hoenig to hold Saturday night races in Memphis this summer.

Highway 15 Coalition Targeting MoDOT 50% Cost-Share Program to Improve Route

Faced with a gloomy financial outlook for the state transportation department that makes improvements to Highway 15 in Scotland County highly unlikely, local advocates for upgrading one of the main transportation routes in the county are considering taking the matter into their own hands.

The recently formed Highway 15 Coalition has already discussed forming a Transportation Development District (TDD) to allow a local sales tax to be proposed to fund local transportation projects.

On Thursday, the coalition members heard from representatives of the Missouri Department of Transportation about the possibility of leveraging such local tax dollars to receive state funding.

MoDOT representatives discussed the department’s cost share program, which annually funds approximately $25 million in projects, with a 50/50 cost share with the local communities.

The group discussed the possibility of raising half of the roughly $2 million estimated cost for constructing four-foot shoulders on Highway 15 through a local sales tax, with the other half of the costs being footed by MoDOT’s cost share program.

Officials explained that the program is highly competitive, with each of the state’s eight transportation districts limited to just two projects per funding cycle.

Coalition member Dr. Jeff Davis expressed some hope that the program might help generate support for the formation of a local TDD.

“I’m sure there are plenty of people out there, when they hear about a proposed local sales tax for transportation, they’re going to say no, it is MoDOT’s responsibility, let them pay for it,” Davis stated. “If that is the case, it is pretty clear nothing is going to get done.”

Representative Craig Redmon seemed to back up that belief when he was asked the likelihood of the legislature coming up with increased funding for MoDOT. Redmon stated he didn’t expect lawmakers to be able to come up with a solution, especially in an election year when many were battling for their jobs.

“That is why the idea of the TDD combined with the MoDOT cost share program has me so excited,” Redmon told the gathering. “Local folks provide half of the funds and leverage it to get the other half from the state. They can see their tax dollars at work. It is tangible results instead of the sense of paying into a black hole and feeling like they’re getting nothing in return.”

The MoDOT officials indicated that cost share funds were already allocated for 2018 and 2019, but funds were available in 2020.

Davis noted that with initial projections from the county that a county-wide 1/2 cent sales tax would generate approximately $200,000, the necessary $1 million to fund the county’s half of a MoDOT cost-share approved project, would take just five years to secure.

MoDOT’s financial representatives noted that the Missouri Transportation Finance Corporation offers loans that can be repaid in such instances, if the project was to move forward before that projected five-year timeframe to generate the revenues.

Currently Scotland County has a 1.25% sales tax rate on top of the state’s 4.225% sales tax, for a total of 5.475%. That compares favorably to surrounding counties where the sales tax rates are 6.225% in Schuyler and Putnam counties, 6.725% in Clark and Knox counties and 7.35% in Lewis County.

An additional 1% sales tax in the City of Memphis raises the total sales tax to 6.475%, which is below the 7.225% rate in Lancaster, 7.725% in Kahoka and Edina, 8.35% in Kirksville, 8.725% in Queen City or the 9.35% in Kirksville districts which includes special sales taxes for transportation.

Members of the coalition expressed interest in creating a TDD to pursue the possibility of a cost share project with MoDOT to upgrade Highway 15.

The earliest a sales tax proposal could be placed before the voters would be April, with a January deadline to get the issue on the ballot.

A December 14th meeting has been proposed at the Scotland County Courthouse to consider moving forward with the proposal. MoDOT officials have been asked to provide refined cost estimates for constructing the four-foot shoulders, as well as information on how similar TDDs formed for Highways 36 and 63 were funded initially during start up.

Initial funding would have to be raised to pay legal fees to form the TDD with the Secretary of State’s office and prepare the ballot language.

Jolly Jacks & Jills 4-H Club Hosts November Meeting

The November meeting of the Jolly Jacks and Jills 4-H Club was called to order by President Elsie Kigar. The pledges were led by Alyssa Kirchner and Mason Mallett. Song Leaders, Hannah Whitney and Laney Mallett led the group with the Turkey Hokey Pokey.  What is your favorite food at Thanksgiving was answered by 29 members for roll call.  There were also 25 parents and guests present.

Secretary Kilee Bradley-Robinson read the October 2017 minutes and they were approved as read along with the treasurer report given by Corbin Kirchner.

Mason Mallett reported on his beef project.

4-H Shooting Sports Fun Shoot was reported on by Eli Kigar, Wesley McSparren and Zayden Arey.  Elsie Kigar reported on attending the Azen Jolly Timers fall hay ride.  Eli Kigar reported on the Gorin Go-Getters Haunted Trail.

Sadie Jackson, Kenna Campbell, Morgan Jackson, Wesley McSparren, Corbin Kirchner, Hannah Whitney, Trent Mallett and Mason Mallett reported on their participation in 4-H week.  The activities included wearing 4-H shirts to school, dressing up as their favorite project, talking on the radio, delivering cookies, and carrying out groceries.

Eli Kigar, Wesley McSparren and Corbin Kirchner reported on attending the Bible Grove Pie Supper.  The club provided the grab bags for part of the game prizes.

4-H Recognition Event was held on Saturday November 4th. Sadie Jackson, Morgan Jackson, Eli Kigar and Wesley McSparren reported on the awards they received.  Awards were passed out to those who were unable to attend.

Assistant Leader Lanea Whitney reported on the November 4-H council meeting.  Highlights included sale & premium check pick up, $10 per member for salary account, nomination for 4-H Hall of fame and council officer installation.  Members and leaders are asked to register and update your profiles in 4honline.com.  Volunteer Applications and Orientation was discussed.

In old business:  Members were reminded to pay for your club t-shirts if you have not done so.  RaElla Wiggins reported on Cards for Troops drive.

The annual traveling bake sale will be on November 22 beginning at 9 am at Jackson Auction Building.  Each family is asked to bring baked goods for this fundraiser.

In new business:  The club agreed to continue Christmas caroling at the Care Center with the Greensburg Willing Workers this year.  A date will be announced at the December meeting.

Jenny Mallett asked the group about purchasing wreaths for Veteran’s Graves at the Memphis Cemetery.  The group agreed to purchase four wreathes.  Jenny will take care to the details.

Announcements:  December 5 will be the next meeting at the Hospital Conference room at 5:30.  January Council meeting is January 17th at 7 pm at the courthouse.  Achievement Event is tentatively set for March 5 and 2018 Fair dates are July 8-14.

Wesley McSparren was volunteered for a demonstration at the December meeting.

After adjournment, game leader Kenna Campbell set up hang men for the members to play while enjoying their snacks.

Submitted by Wesley McSparren, Reporter

Happy Thanksgiving

Happy Thanksgiving to all of you from all of us here at Pine Ridge Bluebird Trails. We are enjoying this time of gathering together with family and friends. I have had a few birds at my front porch feeder. I do not have a lot of leaving shrubbery to protect my birds right around my house, so this makes for a problem.

With many farmers and landowners ridding their farms of hedgerows, and other thicket areas, the places for some birds to go in the winter time are getting fewer. We do have a few trees left on our east fence line here at the trails and some hedgerows on our other farms, but that is not here. I personally like to leave as many trees on the trails as I can.

This year I needed work done on a pond, and in order to do that work I was going to have to cut 16 trees.  I am still trying to figure out what I can do to fix the pond and leave the trees. I have also always liked pines to help with covers for the birds and brush piles also help. I know I have explained how you can make a man made brush pile designed for birds and rabbits during the winter.

I am in the process of building an area for the birds and feeders.  I have several shrubs set out and next spring plan to mulch and border it.  I want to eventually get enough growth to place a few feeders in the area and have some protection for the birds as well. I am also planning to plant some hummingbird-friendly flowering plants there as well.  I am excited as this should be a fun spot to watch.

Boy, haven’t the deer been taking a hit on the roads this last week. I have counted numerous deer. The Eagles have sure been busy around here. I love watching them. They move ahead of the combines in the fields and take care of most of the rabbits. Duane said he noticed several hovering over the fields near the combines flying away with rabbits. The food chain is at work.

If you are able, you will want to keep water out for the winter time birds.  I have two heated bird baths and they really enjoy them.  Now is the time to get ready for those colder days.  Have you been able to find any bird nests in your bare trees.  There are several around here, which I have noticed.  My time was limited this week, so I have not been able to look as much as I would like to.

Enjoy your family this thanksgiving season, and spend some quality time with them.  Until next, time good bird watching.

Scotland County Senior Nutrition Center

MENU

Thursday, Nov. 23 – Center Closed, No Meals, Happy Thanksgiving!

Friday, November 24 – Center Closed

Monday, November 27 – Juicy Burger/Bun, French Fries, Mixed Vegetables, Cottage Cheese, Peaches

Tuesday, November 28 – Roast Pork, Mashed Potatoes/Gravy, Sauerkraut, Green Beans, Bread, Cake

Wed., November 29 – Fried Chicken, Mashed Potatoes/Gravy, Buttered Carrots, Hot Roll, Fruit Salad

Thursday, Nov. 30 – Swiss Steak, Scalloped Cabbage, Buttered Peas, Slice Bread, Pudding/Fruit

ACTIVITIES

Thursday, Nov. 23 – Center Closed Today, No meal or cards.

Friday, Nov. 24 – Center Closed.

Monday, Nov. 27 – AAA and Care Meeting in Shelbina at 10:00 p.m.

Thursday, Nov. 30 – Card Party at 5:00 p.m.

SCR-I School Menus

Breakfast

Thursday, November 23 – Happy Thanksgiving, No School.

Friday, November 24 – No School.

Monday, November 27 – Mini Breakfast Bites, Choice of Cereal, Cinnamon Toast, Orange Slices, Juice/Milk

Tuesday, November 28 – Oatmeal, Choice of Cereal, Toast/Jelly, Peanut Butter, Apple Wedges, Juice/Milk

Wed., November 29 – Ham/Egg/Cheese/Biscuit, Choice of Cereal, Cinnamon Toast, Apple Wedges, Juice/Milk

Thursday, November 30 – Breakfast Burrito, Choice of Cereal, Toast/Jelly, Orange Wedge/Grapes, Juice/Milk

Lunch

Thursday, November 23 – No School, Happy Thanksgiving!

Friday, November 24 – No School.

Monday, November 27 – Hot Dog/Bun, Bar BQ Ribb/Bun, 5th/6th Grade Chef Salad, Macaroni and Cheese, Mixed Vegetables, Mandarin Orange Slices, Fresh Fruit

Tuesday, November 28 – Chicken Patty/Bun, Juicy Burger/Bun, 5th/6th Grade Taco Bar, Curly Q Fries, Buttered Corn, Sliced Pears, Fresh Fruit

Wed., November 29 – Meatloaf, Sliced Ham, 5th/6th Grade Potato Bar, Scalloped Potatoes, Cauliflower/Cheese Sauce, Dinner Roll, Jell-O/Fruit

Thursday, November 23 – Chili Soup, Chicken Noodle Soup, Hamburger Bar, Turkey Salad Sandwich, Pickle Spear, Cheese Stick, Saltine Crackers

Ministerial Alliance Continuing Coat Drive, Food Collection Efforts

The Scotland County Ministerial Alliance met on November 8th at the St. Paul Church in Memphis. Those present were:  Mark Appold, Dan Hite, Diana Koontz, and Jack Sumption.

The coat drive is still ongoing.  So far there have been 10 children’s coats, and 20 adult coats donated.  The group indicated a continuing need for more children’s coats.

The food drive is ongoing with Counselor Dani Fromm collecting food for the drive at the elementary school and the Fellowship of Christian Athletes handling the duties at the high school. The collection will be presented at the Community Thanksgiving Service.  The FCCLA annual Halloween food drive brought in roughly four to six grocery carts of food for the Food Pantry. The local Boy Scouts will assist with the collection and delivery of the food items to the food pantry after the Community Thanksgiving Service.

The 2018 calendar was presented to the meeting for review. Copies of the calendar will be distributed at the December SCMA meeting.

The Thanksgiving Service is being organized by Dan Hite. Nathaniel Orr will be leading the music.  Amy Carleton will be singing also.

Public input is always welcome at the Ministerial Alliance meetings. The next meeting will. be December 13th at 1 p.m.

All You’re Meant to Hear

Most of us hunters like to consider ourselves of the diehard variety. We’re not afraid to get up early, stay out late, and do whatever it takes to get our deer; unless it’s walk more than about a quarter of a mile from our vehicle. It’s true. Most hunters don’t hunt too far off the beaten path. I’ve actually seen some folks ride their four-wheeler up to the very tree they are hunting in. They say the deer never notice. I say they do.

I do believe when deer are pressured they move to some strange places. Oftentimes it’s right next to a road or even a highway. I can remember one year while hunting in Alabama, my friend set up right next to a four lane highway. On the last day of the hunt he killed a nice eight-pointer. I’m sure that deer never imagined a hunter setting up in such an uncommon area.

For me, there’s something about being in a place where I can hear no road noise. I don’t like having to listen for the rustle of leaves through the sounds of rush hour. The purity of the hunt seems tainted when the sounds of the woods are competing with the sounds of a nearby highway. I like being able to hear every squirrel’s bark and every birds chirp.

I’ve noticed my time with the Lord is often characterized this way as well. I find at times I try to hear God without getting far enough away from the sounds of my daily grind. It may be a cell phone, a T.V., or even a time restraint that’s not allowing me to hear all that I’m meant to hear. As a result, the experience is not what I need or what God wants.

The problem is that I’m just hunting (praying) too close to my truck. I’m doing it because it’s the easiest thing to do. But again, the best ones are far off the beaten path.

Right now there’s something you need God to speak to you about. You have a need, or a problem, or a direction that you have questions about. And it’s a big one. For these-sized answers you’re going to have to get away from all the sounds of the world you’re in and remove yourself from anything that will keep your attention from Him. It may take a little longer and a little more effort to get there, but we know that both will have been worth it when you return with the God-sized answer you had hoped for.

Gary Miller

Outdoor Truths Ministries

www.outdoortruths.org

McKee, Hunt Accepted to Culver-Stockton’s Class for Fall 2018

Two local students are among the members of the prospective Culver-Stockton’s fall 2018 incoming class set to head to Canton next August.

Meghan McKee and Lydia Hunt of Memphis have been accepted by Culver-Stockton College, for entry into the four-year residential institution, which is affiliated with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). C-SC specializes in experiential education and is one of only two colleges in the nation to offer the 12/3 semester calendar, where the typical 15-week semester is divided into two terms, a 12-week term and a 3-week term.

The C-SC Wildcats are members of the Heart of America Athletic Conference (HAAC) and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA).

FREDERICK “WAYNE” MATHES (8/27/1933 – 11/16/2017)

Mr. Frederick “Wayne” Mathes, age 84 of Bolivar, MO passed away Thursday, November 16, 2017, at the Missouri Veterans Home at Mt. Vernon, MO. He was born August 27, 1933, in Scotland County, MO, to Fred M. and Anna Barbara (Gardine) Mathes. He was united in marriage to Anna Jean (Ketchum) Kutzner November 19, 1977.

He was preceded in death by his parents; one brother, Kenneth Mathes; sister-in-law Betty Mathes; a sister, Elizabeth McClamroch; and a brother-in-law, Hillis McClamroch.

Wayne is survived by his wife of 40 years, Anna Jean, of the home; two step-daughters, Sherri Kutzner, and Cindy (Kutzner) Rhoads and husband Joe all of Bolivar, MO; as well as other relatives and friends.

Graveside memorial services were held Sunday afternoon, November 19, 2017 at 2:00 p.m. at the Memphis Cemetery, Memphis, MO, with Brother Joe Rhoads officiating. Full military graveside rights were provided by the Wallace W. Gillespie V.F.W. Post #4958 of Memphis and two from his unit from the military honors program.

Online condolences may be sent to the Wayne Mathes family by logging onto Payne’s website at www.paynefuneralchapel.com.

Local arrangements were entrusted to the care of the Payne Funeral Chapel in Memphis assisted by the Pitts Funeral Home in Bolivar, Missouri.

Ely Samuel Parker

Ely Samuel Parker (Hasanoanda) was a Seneca Indian, born in 1828 on the Tonawanda Reservation in eastern New York.  As a young man he became Sachem of the Six Iroquois Nations, served as an intermediary for his people and was called Donehogawa.  In his youth, Ely S. Parker was educated at a missionary school and went on to college. He studied law, but the New York State law prohibited aliens from being admitted to the bar and Indians were not considered citizens. Parker then studied engineering, which he mastered with determination. In 1857 he was sent to Galena, Illinois as supervisor of government projects. In Galena he met Ulysses S. Grant, and the two formed an enduring friendship.  Parker’s engineering experience gained him a commission as a Captain in the Union Army during the Civil War, where he served as an engineer before becoming a member of General Grant’s personal staff.  In time he became Grant’s military secretary with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. It was Ely S. Parker’s excellent handwriting that copied the final draft of surrender terms accepted by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.  After the war, Parker received the rank of brevet brigadier general.  In 1869, after Grant was elected President, he appointed Parker as Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the first Native American to hold the position. Parker resigned from government service after two years. After an unsuccessful business career, he spent his final years working for the New York City Police Department until his death in 1895.

From Jauflione Chapter, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

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